Anthropology has just been radically changed

Discussion in 'History & Past Politicians' started by Mushroom, Jul 17, 2019.

  1. Mushroom

    Mushroom Well-Known Member

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    Until this month, it was always believed that H. Sapiens Largely remained in Africa and Asia until around 40,000 years ago. And for various reasons, Neanderthal was the only humanoid in Europe.

    But now that thought is radically shifting. Over 40 years ago 2 skulls were found in an oceanside cave in Greece. One an almost complete skull that was immediately identified as Neanderthal, and a skull fragment. Both were embedded in the same chunk of sediment, so it was assumed that they were probably from the same time period.

    But more recent research into the fragment has shocked anthropologists and may rewrite human migration into Europe.

    Known as Apidima 1 and Apidima 2, most attention had been given to Apidima 2 because it is almost complete. But only recently did they try to have the skulls fully recreated with modern imaging techniques. And that is when they got their shock.

    https://www.latimes.com/science/story/2019-07-10/oldest-modern-human-skull-in-eurasia

    This even predates the oldest known modern human bones in Asia. Pretty much all beliefs of early human migration may have to be thrown out, and entirely new models created.

    https://www.theatlantic.com/science...ll-oldest-human-fossil-outside-africa/593563/
     
  2. ThirdTerm

    ThirdTerm Well-Known Member

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    [​IMG]

    Two partial crania, named Apidima 1 and Apidima 2, were excavated in the Apidima Cave complex. Apidima 2 had been identified as a Neanderthal (around 170,000 years old), while Apidima 1 is dated to be at least 210,000 years old, which is the oldest H. sapiens fossils found outside Africa. But Apidima 1 represents a dead-end human lineage which is
    not related to us. At the Apidima Cave complex, it is plausible that H. sapiens and Neanderthals coexisted for at least 10,000 years and interbred with each other. Some earlier studies have shown that human DNA introgressed into Neanderthals from an unidentified group of H. sapiens which left Africa earlier than commonly thought. Probably Harbati et al. (2019) stumbled into this extinct H. sapiens group in Greece.


    [​IMG]
    Figure 1 | Some key early fossils of Homo sapiens and related species in Africa and Eurasia. Harvati et al.5 present their analyses of two fossil skulls from Apidima Cave in Greece. They report that the fossil Apidima 1 is an H. sapiens specimen that is at least 210,000 years old, from a time when Neanderthals occupied many European sites. It is the earliest known example of H. sapiens in Europe, and is at least 160,000 years older than the next oldest H. sapiens fossils found in Europe6 (not shown). Harvati and colleagues confirm that, as previously reported7, Apidima 2 is a Neanderthal specimen, and they estimate that it is at least 170,000 years old. The authors’ findings, along with other discoveries of which a selection is shown here, shed light on the timing and locations of early successful and failed dispersals out of Africa of hominins (modern humans and other human relatives, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans). kyr, thousand years old.

     
    Last edited: Jul 17, 2019
  3. Moi621

    Moi621 Well-Known Member Donor

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    Why is H. erectus not mentioned. :angered:

    I just watched a Chinese anthropologist discuss the oldest human fossil
    was Sapian & Erectus hybrid based on chin angle!
     
  4. Mushroom

    Mushroom Well-Known Member

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    Probably because other than a few isolated pockets on remote islands like Java, H. Erectus was extinct by 300,000 years ago. He was replaced by H. Heidelbergensis. Which was then replaced by H. Neanderthal.
     
  5. Moi621

    Moi621 Well-Known Member Donor

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    1_Timeline_TemperatureVsCivilization.jpg
     
  6. ThirdTerm

    ThirdTerm Well-Known Member

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    Recent research revealed that H. erectus appeared to survive in Indonesia until about 35,000 to 50,000 years ago and interbred with modern humans. The new study by Teixeira and Cooper (2019) identified two extinct species which interbred with modern humans in Indonesia; EH1 and EH2. The first unknown extinct hominin - named EH1 - was roughly genetically equidistant from Denisovans and Neanderthals, meaning that EH1 was a Neanderthal/Denisovan hybrid. The ancestor of Australo-Papuan populations bred with EH1, resulting in 2.6 to 3.4 percent shared EH1 ancestry. EH2, the extinct hominin that interbred with modern humans on Flores, is likely to be H. erectus or H. floresiensis. Some Indonesian students in Australia looked slightly distant from modern humans and we now have some scientific explanations.
    .

    [​IMG]

     
    Last edited: Jul 25, 2019
  7. Mushroom

    Mushroom Well-Known Member

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    And did I not say quite clearly "other than a few isolated pockets on remote islands like Java"? Geee, I am pretty sure I did.

    *looks back to double check*

    Yea, I sure did! We also know that the Woolly Mammoth had largely died off around 10-15,000 years ago. But there were still some alive as recently as 3-4,000 years ago. Once again, in isolated pockets and islands

    So basically you are posting information that says nothing. We know that H. Erectus survived on some of the Pacific Islands until possibly as recently as 30,000 years ago. But that is long after they had become extinct on the mainland, much like the mammoth's that survived on islands long after the rest of the species on the continents died off.

    Curiosities, no longer participating in evolution in any way other than going extinct when their shrinking ecology can no longer support them, or they are supplanted by something else.
     
  8. Moi621

    Moi621 Well-Known Member Donor

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    We know Erectus hybridized as did Neanderthal.


    Continuity through continuous hybridization
    rather than species replacement
     
  9. ThirdTerm

    ThirdTerm Well-Known Member

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    There is a developing consensus that the ancestors of the Chinese interbred with Denisovans, Neanderthal cousins in Asia. It could have been a Homo erectus-like introgression into the Denisovans about 53,000 years ago. The Denisovan ancestry in Melanesians appears to originate from a Denisovan population distantly related to that of the Denisova 3 specimen, and a similar ancestry can also be found in East Asia, particularly in Chinese and Japanese. In East Asians, a second Denisovan introgression from a Denisovan population more closely related to the Denisova 3 specimen was also detected. Approximately one-third of the Denisovan segments in the Japanese and Chinese populations coming from the component with higher affinity to the Altai Denisovan genome. Strangely, a Denisovan-related introgression was also detected in the Finns at 0.84, which is the exact same value as the Han Chinese (Beijing).

    Table 2 Two-Component Mixtures for Denisovan-Related Introgression ( Browning at al. 2018 )

    Southern Han Chinese 0.82
    Han Chinese (Beijing) 0.84
    Chinese Dai 0.86
    Japanese (Tokyo) 0.86
    Finnish 0.84
    Punjabi (Pakistan) 0.82

     
    Last edited: Sep 4, 2019
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  10. Moi621

    Moi621 Well-Known Member Donor

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    1_Timeline_TemperatureVsCivilization.jpg
    Look at the span of time assigned to H. e.
    No doubt the early ones were very diff from the more modern ones.
    They seem to disappear from "the discussion".
    Also notice at the bottom, we are lucky to live between glacial periods.



    BTW did they give a value of Denisovan-Related Introgression for :flagcanada:s ?
     
    Last edited: Sep 10, 2019

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