At least 67% of Singapore parliamentarians since 1988 are hoodlums, gangsters and goons. This is because under GRC system of elections, majority of Singapore parliament has become overrun by 'Leegalised' mafia. Before 1988, even LKY couldn't quite force any PAP MP to vote or speak in parliament against his conscience, today however, that is routine. That is because prior to 1988 where all parliamentary MP seats were single and GRC hadn't yet existed, even though a PAP MP who had been expelled from PAP political party membership would lose his MP seat according to Singapore constitutional laws, he would still have the opportunity to contest a by-election which would have to be automatically held as a consequence of any vacated MP seat, (unless he is IMPRISONED) and as opposition or independent besed on his choice and the people would be able to decide if they wanted him back as MP. Unfortunately, under the GRC system of elections, constituents no longer have that option since by-elections are now forfeited by the GRC system of government. (even loss of minority race MP is not replaced by by-election). https://www.straitstimes.com/politi...tion-if-minority-mp-leaves-grc-says-chun-sing The present Singapore parliament may consists of between 93 and 105 'elected' MP seats, if NCMP are considered 'elected' albeit as the highest % voted losing opposition candidates, entering parliament under an NCMP concessionary scheme. Since GRCs do not have to undergo by-election unless all the seats are vacated, this means that there is probably only one MP per GRC who is the sponsor, likely the cabinet minister, who is capable of thinking on his feet, the rest being just passengers, zombies, incapable of independent thought or speaking /voting independently in parliament due to almost permanent oppression by the party parliamentary whip. Only single MP seats are capable of undergoing by-election and these number just 14 in GE2020 Singapore elections. Add the 17 cabinet ministers helming each GRC and this total numbers only 31 MPs. The rest of the 62 MP are thus mere political cronies, goons, henchmen and zombies riding the ministers coat tails as a stepping stone to a better life for themselves and are almost guaranteed to avoid rocking the boat, since they are all amply aware that for them, there is no recourse to political party membership dismissal and thus have already tacitly agreed during recruitment, in exchange for generous parliamentary salary and benifits, not to ask the establishment any difficult questions in parliament and to just serve as seat place holders and eye candy in parliament and cheer their sponsoring cabinet ministers speeches at all times. These GRC MPs, especially of the ruling PAP side are thus mercineries or actually cowardly freeloaders, seeking some fake creditials on their resume good only for purpose of future job promotion in a politically unbalanced despotic, undemocratic country as Singapore is known. ============= 'Without some assurance of a good chance of winning at least their first election, many able and successful young Singaporeans may not risk their careers to join politics,' Mr Goh Chok Tong, June 2006 ['GRCs make it easier to find top talent: SM']. [Pict= Disassembling GRC system benefits PAP (Part 1 of 3)] PS: Technically, the proportion of zombie, crony MPs goes up (beyond 2/3 of Parliament) if all possible 12 opposition NCMP are included into the fold, since by-elections are not provided for for NCMP seats either and opposition NCMP may be self censored since it is unknown if they will be replaced by the waiting list queue should they be ejected from PAP majority parliament by PAP super-majority rubberstamp vote.