Syria Independence to 1970

Discussion in 'Middle East' started by Margot2, Oct 27, 2013.

  1. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    This is a short history of Syria from 1946 thru 1970.. They have had their share of turmoil.


    Independence to 1970

    Although rapid economic development followed the declaration of independence of April 17, 1946, Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s were marked by upheaval.

    A series of military coups beginning in 1949 undermined civilian rule and led to army colonel Adib Shishakli's seizure of power in 1951. After the overthrow of President Shishakli in a 1954 coup, continued political maneuvering supported by competing factions in the military eventually brought Arab nationalist and socialist movements to power.

    Syria's political instability during the years after the 1954 coup, the apparent parallelism of Syrian and Egyptian policies, and the appeal of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser's leadership in the wake of the 1956 Suez crisis created support in Syria for union with Egypt.

    On February 1, 1958, the two countries merged to create the United Arab Republic, and all Syrian political parties ceased overt activities. Cairo directed economic policies in Syria, generating resentment among many Syrians.

    The union was not a success, and, following a military coup on September 28, 1961, Syria seceded, reestablishing itself as the Syrian Arab Republic. Instability characterized the next 18 months, with various coups culminating on March 8, 1963, in the installation by leftist Syrian Army officers of the National Council of the Revolutionary Command (NCRC), a group of military and civilian officials who assumed control of all executive and legislative authority. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Resurrection Party (Ba'ath Party), which had been active in Syria and other Arab countries since the late 1940s. The new cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath members.

    The Ba'ath takeover in Syria followed a Ba'ath coup in Iraq the previous month.

    The new Syrian Government explored the possibility of federation with Egypt and Ba'ath-controlled Iraq. An agreement was concluded in Cairo on April 17, 1963, for a referendum on unity to be held in September 1963. However, serious disagreements among the parties soon developed, and the tripartite federation failed to materialize. Thereafter, the Ba'ath regimes in Syria and Iraq began to work for bilateral unity. These plans foundered in November 1963, when the Ba'ath regime in Iraq was overthrown. In May 1964, President Amin Hafiz of the NCRC promulgated a provisional constitution providing for an appointed legislature called the National Council of the Revolution (NCR) composed of representatives of mass organizations--labor, peasant, and professional unions; a presidential council, in which executive power was vested; and a cabinet.

    On February 23, 1966, a group of army officers carried out a successful, intra-party coup, imprisoned President Hafiz, dissolved the cabinet and the NCR, abrogated the provisional constitution, and designated a regionalist, civilian Ba'ath government. The coup leaders described it as a "rectification" of Ba'ath Party principles. The defeat of the Syrians and Egyptians in the June 1967 war with Israel weakened the radical socialist regime established by the 1966 coup. Conflict developed between a moderate military wing and a more extremist civilian wing of the Ba'ath Party.

    The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this political disagreement within the ruling Ba'ath leadership. On November 13, 1970, Minister of Defense Hafiz al-Asad effected a bloodless military coup, ousting the civilian party leadership and assuming the role of prime minister.

    continued.

    http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/history
     
  2. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    Early history of the make up of Syrian people.



    Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arameans, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Nabataeans, Byzantines, and, in part, Crusaders before finally coming under the control of the Ottoman Turks. Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Paul was converted on the road to Damascus and established the first organized Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys.

    http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/history
     
  3. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    Syria is a middle-income, developing country with an economy based on agriculture, oil, industry, and tourism. However, Syria's economy began to face serious challenges and impediments to growth even prior to March 2011, including: a large and poorly performing public sector; declining rates of oil production; widening non-oil deficit; widescale corruption; weak financial and capital markets; and high rates of unemployment tied to a high population growth rate.

    In addition, Syria has been subject to U.S. economic sanctions since 2004 under the Syria Accountability Act, which prohibits or restricts the export and re-export of most U.S. products to Syria. In response to regime brutality against peaceful protesters beginning in 2011, the U.S. Government imposed additional sanctions beginning in April 2011, designating those complicit in human rights abuses or supporting the Asad regime. Sanctions in August 2008 prohibited the export of U.S. services to Syrian and banned U.S. persons from involvement in the Syrian petroleum sector, including a prohibition on importing Syrian petroleum products. The European Union, Japan, Canada, and other countries have also implemented a range of bilateral sanctions on the Syrian government.

    As a result of an inefficient and corrupt centrally planned economy, Syria has both low rates of investment and low levels of industrial and agricultural productivity. Consumer unwillingness to spend money in turbulent times, a devastated tourism sector, customs spats with Turkey, pressure on the Syrian pound, and increasing unemployment and factory closings led the IMF to reduce estimates of economic growth in 2011 and to project negative real GDP growth in 2012.

    The two main pillars of the Syrian economy have been agriculture and oil. Severe drought badly affected the agricultural sector, reducing its share in the economy to about 17% of GDP, down from 20.4% in 2007 and 25% in the 1990s. On the other hand, higher crude oil prices countered declining oil production and led to higher budgetary and export receipts before international sanctions on Syrian oil cut revenue to the Syrian Government by $2 billion, according to the Syrian Minister of Petroleum in January 2012.

    Water and energy availability are among the most pervasive issues facing the agriculture sector. The agricultural sector has also suffered from the government’s vacillation on subsidies for key inputs such as fertilizers, fuel, electricity, and water.

    Drought has continued for several years and thousands of small farmers and herders have been displaced to the outskirts of cities to the west, including Damascus.

    Wheat and barley production is heavily dependent on rainfall, and in dry years irrigation places high demands on water pumps run on electricity or diesel. The UN has implemented an emergency program, but food distribution has been stopped by security conditions. Syria has moved from being a net exporter of wheat to a net importer, and subsidies for bread and sugar have placed an additional strain on the budget as world prices have risen.

    http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/syria/economy
     
  4. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    FYI..............
     
  5. MGB ROADSTER

    MGB ROADSTER Well-Known Member

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    Syria Independence to 2014 ?
    After Assad's fall ( and he will fall or step down ) Syria will not be the same. I'm sure all agree to that.
    I strongly believe Syria will be devided into 3 small countries - Kurd's land, Sunni territory and the Alawites country.
    Other solution will bring genocide on the Alawites and a bloody conflict for many years to come.
     
  6. Midnight Express

    Midnight Express New Member

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    This is not a solution ...at the same time It is impossible....It doesnt work..never
     
  7. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    Quick question, Assad belongs to the Ba'ath party right?
     
  8. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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  9. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    Hafez is the father. I was refering to his son but thank you. Now I'm starting to get a much better idea as to why the US isn't trying to reach any sort of peace agreement that wouldn't leave Syria in a weakened state.
     
  10. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    I don't understand Syria at all... I do think they are in for a rough road.......
     
  11. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    In all honest, neither do I. But it seems that they have a strong tradition of the military ruling, or at least having some sort of say, and they have trouble figuring out who is the leader of the military (civilian, like in the US or a general).
     
  12. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    Its Bashar's younger brother.. and he is ruthless.

    I think Bashar is a bit of a wimp.. vacant.. but he is surrounded by uncles who are hardliners like his father. The Alawites are only some 3% of the population.
     
  13. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    I kind of got that impression too. But I don't know, it feels like there is something more to it.
     
  14. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    Barbara Walters interviews Assad

    [video=youtube;yL9h9vSOHDk]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yL9h9vSOHDk&feature=player_detailpage[/video]
     
  15. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    I wish I had time to watch all of this.
     
  16. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    He is oblivious.. as if he were on valium.. Watch it when you can.
     
  17. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    I'll make time for it tomorrow, thanks for posting it.
     
  18. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    You're welcome.
     
  19. MGB ROADSTER

    MGB ROADSTER Well-Known Member

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    All Arabs have a strong tradition of the military ruling.
    Arabs cannot handle democracy. Maybe in 2413
     
  20. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    Arabs can't handle it because they don't have a strong tradition of it. Think of it like this, France, the birthplace of the Enlightenment from 1789-1872 failed to establish a stable democracy. It was only a matter of time before they became democratic though. Even know we're starting to see trends that show the Arabs will have stable democracies. In Iran, people elect candidates, albeit selected by the ayatollah. People use political parties, the names of rulers are presidents, not dictator. Give it some time, they will have democracies.
     
  21. MGB ROADSTER

    MGB ROADSTER Well-Known Member

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    While we give them time, they spread their hatred all over the west against Christians and Jews.
    We cannot wait until 2413. People must act now.
    Europians do not want and will never live under Shariah laws.
     
  22. Margot2

    Margot2 Banned

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    No that don't have a strong tradition of military ruling... They have a strong tradition of Majlis at every level....

    - - - Updated - - -

    You seem to be one of the main people spewing hatred on every thread.
     
  23. Kranes56

    Kranes56 Well-Known Member

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    Europeans had to deal with the exact same thing. Time is all that is needed. Time is what will make democracy work. Somehow trying to tell them how to run their government's only slows and cheapens the democratic process now. Democracy has withstood the test of time. Now all it's going to take is simply time for other countries to adopt a democractic government.
     

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