This probably won't go far, but I thought I'd throw something different out there for people to discuss if they're so inclined, and it's the origins of the Natural Rights we enjoy today. We have the late great Professor Brian Tierney to thank for this groundbreaking research, which was published back in 1997 but is now gaining more attention and acceptance in scholarly circles: The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law, 1150-1625 https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/th...ts-brian-tierney/1131983935?ean=9780802848543 Back when I was in school, before Tierney's research had been completed and published, we were taught that the origins of our Natural Rights led back to the great philosophers of the Renaissance and Enlightenment, most notably John Locke, whose assertion of the Natural Rights of Life, Liberty and Property greatly influenced the Founders of my country (United States) and the Framers of our Constitution and Bill of Rights. At that time, some people traced their origins back a little further to Hugo Grotius, but nowhere near as far as Huguccio, Rufinus and the other 12th and 13th Century canon lawyers and decretists working at the University of Bologna. These lawyers and their civil counterparts were studying both the corpus of Roman civil law (aka Justinian's Code) that had recently been recovered in its entirety and Gratian's compilation of the first millennium of church law, known as the Decretum. These lawyers were not only developing civil law in its new contemporary context, but creating the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church (why this took until the 12th Century I can only guess). Here's a relatively brief background on the history of their work and the origin of the idea of Natural Rights: The Idea of Natural Rights-Origins and Persistence https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=njihr While the history and details of the origins of the idea of Natural Rights is interesting on its own, I can't help but be struck how this research has changed what we have been taught about when and where these ideas originated and how they have reestablished a historical continuum that was not interrupted in the Middle Ages. Again, I was taught that these ideas were the product of an age and philosophers that have been fairly or unfairly associated with anti-clerical and anti-religious beliefs, but now we find that they are a product of Catholic canonists and Christian doctrine, most particularly the Golden Rule and its underlying message of equality and reciprocity. Of course, we can decipher strains of the origins of the idea of Natural Rights going back to Antiquity, where they were expressed by the Greek playwright Sophocles (in Antigone) and others. I'll post some other articles, and if anyone cares to share their own thoughts and observations please feel free to do so. I'll point out there is still some debate over the origins of the idea of Natural Rights so there's obviously room for debate here.